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TaoP - High Performance and Anonymous Transfer Protocol on Tao

A tremendous amount of work and investment has been devoted to the development of blockchain technology to solve current problems, i.e. scalability and privacy, with the technology itself as well as to maximize the adoption of the technology in daily life.

The majority of public blockchain technology/platforms have a built-in cryptocurrency in which every transaction shows the amount of tokens or native coins that the sender is transferring to the recipient. In this regard, blockchain provides transparency to all users, which is not always expected by the majority of businesses. A business would like to hide the transaction amount, instead of showing it to everyone.

This paper presents TaoP - a protocol proposed by Tao for private transactions on the Tao public blockchain. The paper describes a protocol that allows creating anonymous transactions that hide the transaction value, sender, and receiver to preserve the financial privacy of holders of TAO and tokens on Tao. TaoP is the first ever EVM-compatible private transaction protocol with very fast transaction speed that allows anonymizing the transaction sender in a transaction without requiring an intermediary.

TaoP solves the following problems:

  • Performance: Most (if not all) current privacy coins, i.e. Monero, ZCoin, ZCash, are slow because of high block time in the consensus protocol of those public chains. TaoP operates as a DApp on Tao, which provides transaction confirmation within 2-4 seconds.

  • Transaction sender anonymity: most EVM smart contract-based private transactions require a relayer to sign a private transaction to pay the transaction gas that will eventually be refunded. This makes the privacy transaction system semi-decentralized. TaoP, on the other hand, uses TaoZ - the protocol to make gasless transactions without requiring a relayer between the transaction creator and the blockchain.

  • Out-of-gas: Verifying cryptographic proofs in private transactions requires intensive computation, which could cause the out-of-gas problem in EVM environment. To reduce gas consumption and speed up transaction proof verification, TaoP implements a set of precompiled contracts integrated in the core EVM of Tao.

  • TaoP allows creating a private token standard to make super fast token-based payment systems and DApps on Tao.

TaoP relies on the following techniques:

  • Cryptographic privacy building blocks include:

    • Stealth address: This technique is used for obfuscating transaction recipients by generating a new one-time public key for every transaction recipient so that there is no way for a third party to find the relationships between 2 different transaction recipients. What this means is that, if Alice is sending 2 transactions to Bob, no one, except Alice and Bob could find out the fact that Bob is the recipient in both transactions.
    • Ring Signature and Ring Confidential Transaction (RingCT): These are techniques used by Monero for obfuscating transaction senders and transaction amounts in a transaction.
    • Bulletproofs: Zero-knowledge proofs that allow proving an encrypted number is within a range without revealing the number itself. Bulletproofs are used in TaoP transactions to prove that a transaction amount in a private transaction is positive in order to prevent double spending.
  • TaoZ: TaoZ is the first decentralized gasless transaction protocol on Tao. TaoP relies on TaoZ to create a transaction fee vault for private transactions. This fee vault is stored in TaoIssuer contract on Tao to pay the network fee while the actual private transaction fee is paid internally in the private transaction.

  • Precompiled contracts: A set of precompiled contracts for Ring Signature verification and Bulletproof range proof is integrated directly into the core EVM of Tao. This allows any smart contract (i.e. private token contract) to call those precompiled contracts to verify cryptographic proofs.

Why privacy matters?

Privacy is necessary for ensuring freedom on the internet. When your transactions are being watched — or when your transaction history is available to be known — a person isn't free to make their own decisions. With other digital currencies, bad actors are able to match people to their balances and details about parties involved, amounts and trends.


Blockchain technology fundamentally relies on distributed system principles and cryptography techniques, especially digital signature algorithms. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is widely used in most blockchain systems such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Tao to generate a signature in order to authenticate the sender of a transaction. The most widely used elliptic curve in blockchains is secp256k1.

The 64-character string called private key is the most important information that any holder should keep private. A private key can be used for generating a public key, which is in turn used for deriving an Ethereum user address (40 hex characters) that every cryptocurrency holder is familiar with.

Mathematically, an address X can be generated from a private key P as follows:

Pk = P*G
X = bytes20(SHA256(Pk))

Where Pk denotes the public key derived from the private key, SHA256 is the cryptographic hash, bytes20 takes the first 20 bytes of any data, and G is a common generator point in secp256k1 curve. Eventually, X is a 40-character string (20 bytes) derived from the private key.

The multiplication P*G is called elliptic multiplication. It is easy to compute a public key from a private key but it is infeasible to compute a private key from a given public key (there is no division in the elliptic curve number space).

Pederson commitment

Pederson commitment is a cryptographic commitment scheme equivalent to secretly writing a secret message m in a sealed, tamper-evident, individually numbered (or/and countersigned) envelope kept by who wrote the message. The envelope's content can't be changed by any means, and the message does not leak any information.

In TaoP, a Pederson commitment C to a number f is defined as follows:

C = m*G + f*H

Where m is 256-bit number called blinding factor/mask, and H is another generator point.

If we consider f as an account’s balance on Tao, the commitment C can be used for hiding the transaction amount of such account. In other words, C is the Pederson encrypted amount of such account.

Pederson commitment is a form of additively homomorphic encryption, which has the following nice property: The sum of two Pederson commitments to f1 and f2 is equal to the Pederson commitment of f1 + f2.

        `C(m1, f1) + C(m2, f2) = C(m1 + m2, f1 + f2)`

This is the key application of Pederson commitment to most privacy-focused blockchains.

TaoP architecture

TaoP supports both an anonymous TAO transfer method and a private token standard on Tao.

The following figure shows the overview of TaoP that is integrated both at the core and the smart contract layer of Tao.

overviewprivacyFigure 1: Overview of TaoP

Instead of directly sending funds to the recipient, the sender will anonymize their TAO by making a transaction to the Privacy smart contract. As long as send transactions are made to the privacy contract, the latter allows TAO holders to send/receiver TAO to/from others without showing the transaction amount within it. TaoP transactions are like Monero transactions but in a smart contract on the very fast blockchain Tao.

Typically, funds flow as follows:

  • A user anonymize her TAO by making a deposit transaction to send TAO to the privacy smart contract. This transaction is a normal transaction and does not hide the transaction amount. This transaction creates a Note in the privacy contract. A note is similar to the concept of Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) on Bitcoin blockchain with additional information, i.e. a Pedersen commitment, that is used for creating cryptographic proofs when the user wants to make an anonymous send transaction.

  • The user makes anonymous send transactions from the user to a recipient. The transaction amount is hidden. Funds are not moved out of the privacy contract. The user uses her own private key to create RingCT and Bulletproofs for the privacy contract to verify. Anonymous send obfuscates transaction sender and receiver, and hides transaction amounts.

  • The user can decide to de-anonymize her private TAO by withdrawing all or part of her funds from the privacy contract to the user’s public wallet. The withdrawing amount is visible on the chain but the remaining funds of the user held in the privacy contract is always hidden.

Transaction fee and TaoZ integration

TaoP utilizes TaoZ - the core protocol of Tao allowing gasless transactions in a decentralized way to anonymize msg.sender in anonymous send transactions to the privacy smart contract. TaoZ integration is very important to TaoP because of the way that it does not require an account to hold TAO to make a transaction.

For example, when Alice wants to make an anonymous send transaction to the privacy contract, if Alice uses her private key to sign the transaction, every one would know that Alice is making a private transaction, which would destroy the anonymity property of the protocol.

Having a third-party such as relayer to sign the transaction and pay the gas fee is promising but centralizing the protocol. Integrating with TaoZ allows to create a privacy fee vault that is initially deposited by the issuer/owner of the privacy contract.

For every anonymous send transaction, Alice uses her private key to create cryptographic proofs: RingCT, Bulletproofs, a brand new account/private key without TAO is used for signing as msg.sender. The actual network fee will be paid from the privacy vault fee to masternodes through TaoZ protocol. On the other hand, to compensate the privacy transaction fee paid for masternodes, Alice sends a 0.01 TAO fee to the issuer/owner within the smart contract execution of the anonymous transaction. The transaction fee flow is as the following figure.

privacyfeeFigure 2: Privacy transaction fee and TaoZ integration

TaoP's privacy address

TaoP uses a single private key to generate a dual-key system. The user private key s of the user's TAO address is called private spend key and v = SHA256(s) is the private view key of the user. As the names imply:

  • Private spend key s: This is used for making cryptographic proofs for spending funds in the privacy contract.
  • Private view key v: This is used for viewing the information of all transactions belonging to the user.

Having v only allows seeing the transaction history of the user, but does not allow spending funds. This could be used as a tool for authorized parties to check the transaction history of a user by requiring the user to register her private view key to the authorized parties for regulatory compliance purposes.

Each private spend key s has an associated privacy address. The latter is Base58 encoding of the public spend (S) and public view (V) keys derived from s and v.

When Alice wants to make an anonymous send transaction to Bob, Bob needs to send his privacy address to Alice.

Ring Confidential Transaction and Bulletproofs

Confidential transaction

Confidential transaction was proposed for Bitcoin privacy integration by Greg Maxwell. It uses Pedersen commitment to encrypt transaction amounts using randomly generated masks. Cryptographically, confidential transaction states that the sum of Pedersen commitments of all input notes must be equal to the sum of all Pedersen commitments of all output notes. Users are recommended to check confidential transaction to better understand how it works.

What confidential transaction does not support is transaction sender anonymity, which is supported by Ring Confidential Transaction (RingCT) implemented by Monero. RingCT is the combination of Ring Signature and Confidential Transaction. Ring Signature allows to obfuscate transaction sender in an anonymity set, whose size is 12 in TaoP.

RingCT, however, requires the support of a zero-knowledge range proof in order to prove the transaction amount committed in a Pedersen commitment is positive to prevent from double spending. This is supported by Bulletproofs which supports short non-interactive proofs without a trusted setup for confidential transactions.

Range proofs with Bulletproofs

Range proofs is a type of zero-knowledge proof used for proving that a secret value is within a value range without revealing the precise value of the secret. Bulletproofs is a new non-interactive zero-knowledge proof protocol with very short proofs and without a trusted setup; the proof size is only logarithmic in the witness size.

TaoP uses Bulletproofs range proof to prove the transaction amount commited in Pedersen commitments is positive. Both Bulletproofs and RingCT are implemented in our privacy SDK.


Privacy precompiled contracts

To reduce the gas consumption of RingCT and Bulletproof verification, we propose two precompiled contracts, RingCTVerifier and BulletproofVerifier, that are implemented in the core EVM of Tao, using Golang. These two precompiled contracts will be called by the privacy contract to verify the confidential transaction and Bulletproof range proof, respectively. The current addresses for those precompiled contracts are 0x000000000000000000000000000000000000001e and 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000028.

Anonymize TAO

Anonymizing TAO is equal to making a deposit transaction to the privacy contract. The deposit transaction creates a new Note n in the privacy contract that has the following cryptographic elements:

  • A transaction public key Ptx
  • A stealth, one-time public key Pst
  • A Pedersen commitment C of the deposit amount

A deposit fee of 0.001 TAO is applied to pay transaction fees for the person who deposits to the privacy transaction fee vault.

Once deposited, the privacy smart contract records that the person that has the private key corresponding to the deposit stealth public key has the deposit amount in a note.

Anonymous send

Suppose Bob wants to receive x TAO from Alice via an anonymous send transaction.

  1. Bob sends his privacy address to Alice
  2. Alice derives a stealth one-time public key Stealthb as follows:
    • Alice decodes the Base58 privacy address of Bob to have the public spend Sb and public view Vb key of Bob.
    • Alice generates a random 256-bit number transaction private key stx and computes the corresponding transaction public key Stx = stx*G.
    • Alice computes the Elliptic Curve Diff Hellman (ECDH) E = stx* Vb
    • Alice computes Stealthb = E * G + Sb.
  3. Alice generates Pedersen commitment for the transaction amount x.
    • Alice randomly generates a 256-bit number called mask m
    • Alice creates a Pedersen commitment C = m*G + x*H
    • Alice encrypts m and x using the Elliptic Curve Diff Hellman E with an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. Let's denote the cipher text produced by this encryption MX.
  4. Alice generates ring confidential transaction RingCT sig for the transaction (details are provided later).
  5. Alice generates a bulletproof range proof bp to prove that x is positive without revealing the value of x.
  6. Alice bundles (Stx, Stealthb, C, MX, sig, bp) into the data of a transaction, generates a random private key to sign the transaction (to anonymize msg.sender), and sends the signed transaction to the privacy smart contract.

The generation of RingCT and Bulletproofs will be posted in details in Tao's technical blog later.

Note that RingCT is generated by taking into account the transaction fee of 0.01 TAO. The algorithm to generate sig is similar to the one described in Monero RingCT.

In Step 6, TaoZ empowers the anonymization of msg.sender through the privacy fee vault and the paying of transaction fee within the internal execution of the privacy smart contract.

Anonymous send transaction verification on smart contracts

The privacy smart contract basically verifies:

  • The existence of all input notes in the transaction
  • The validity of the ring confidential transaction (RingCT) sig by calling RingCTVerifier precompiled contract.
  • The validity of Bulletproofs bp by calling BulletproofVerifier precompiled contract.

Anonymous reception of TAO

Once the transaction is confirmed, Bob needs to scan all newly created notes on the privacy smart contract to recognize which one belongs to him. Bob uses his private view key to decode the encrypted transaction amount. A proof-of-concept code for the privacy contract can be found here.

Due to the math complexity of RingCT and Bulletproofs, we omit the construction algorithms for those proofs here and will detail them in Tao's tech blog.

Private token standard

TaoP is designed to support private tokens issued on Tao. A new private token standard TRC2P will be supportec by extending the TRC21 token standard.

Regulatory compliance

By using a dual-key-like system, any user could register her/his private view key to an authorized authority. The latter will then be able to decode all transactions that involve the user but will not be able to create an anonymous send transaction.
The authorized authority would be the goverment tax agency or any organization that allows to track user transactions for legal purposes. Even a bank could use TaoP to keep track of their user balance while leaving only authorized users with private spend keys to make transactions.


On-going development Github repositories for TaoP

  1. - contains privacy and utility contract solidity code
  2. - contains source code for precompiled contracts
  3. - proof-of-concept web wallet
  4. - SDK for TaoP to make anonymous transactions