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Tao private testnet setup

This tutorial shows how to setup a private Tao testnet on a local machine. The purpose is to help developers familiarise Tao's source code and initial setup so that one can learn to contribute to the development of Tao. The tutorial is alo a first step for any developer who wants to customize Tao's source code to use in a private or consortium environment.

The following will walk you step-by-step to setup a Tao private net with three masternodes.

Install Golang

  • Reference:
  • Set environment variables
set GOROOT=$HOME/usr/local/go

Prepare tao client software

  • cd $GOPATH/src/
  • Download source code and build
git init
git remote add
git pull origin master
make all
  • Create shortcuts/alias for easier access
alias tao=$GOPATH/src/
alias bootnode=$GOPATH/src/
alias puppeth=$GOPATH/src/

Setup chain data folders datadir and corresponding keystore folders for 3 masternodes

mkdir $HOME/taoblockchain
mkdir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes
mkdir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1 $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/2 $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/3 
mkdir $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/1 $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/2 $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/3

Initialize / Import accounts for the masternodes's keystore

  • Initialize new accounts: If you have existing accounts and prefer importing them, please ignore this step and go to Import Accounts
tao account new \
      --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/1
tao account new \
      --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/2
tao account new \
      --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/3
  • Import accounts
tao  account import [PRIVATE_KEY_FILE_OF_YOUR_ACCOUNT] \
    --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/1 \

Repeat this step to import two more private keys for our three masternodes.

Customize genesis block by using the puppeth tool

  • Run puppeth command and answer questions about your private chain as follows:
  • Set chain name
     > localtao

Private chain name

  • Enter 2 to configure new genesis
  • Enter 3 to select DPOS consensus
  • Set blocktime (default 2 seconds)
  • Set reward of each epoch
  • Set addresses to be initial masternodes
  • Set number of blocks of each epoch (default 900). If you would like to customize epoch number, please update code here common/constants.go:14 EpocBlockRandomize = 900

  • Set gap (How many blocks before checkpoint need prepare new masternodes set ?) suggestedGap = 5

  • Enter foundation address which you hold private key

DPOS configurations

  • Enter accounts which you control private keys to unlock MultiSig wallet

MultiSig wallet setting

  • Enter swap wallet address for fund 55 million TAO

Initial funds

  • Export genesis file - Select 2. Manage existing genesis - Select 2. Export genesis configuration - Enter genesis filename

Export genesis file

  • Control + C to exit

Initialize your private chain with above genesis block

tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1 init [PATH/TO/GENESIS_FILE]
tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/2 init [PATH/TO/GENESIS_FILE]
tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/3 init [PATH/TO/GENESIS_FILE]

Setup bootnode

  • Initialize bootnode key
bootnode -genkey bootnode.key
  • Start bootnode and copy bootnode information
bootnode -nodekey ./bootnode.key

enode://7e59324b1e54f8c282719465eb96786fb3a04a0265deee2cdb0f62e912337ca6f118d0c91f7ebfae6f5c17825205279249cf7ff65ae54d0a1a8908ef16f80f63@[::]:30301 Start bootnode

Start masternodes

  • Start masternode 1
tao  --syncmode "full" \     
        --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1 --networkid [YOUR_NETWORK_ID] --port 10303 \
        --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/1 --password [YOUR_PASSWORD_FILE_TO_UNLOCK_YOUR_ACCOUNT] \
        --rpc --rpccorsdomain "*" --rpcaddr --rpcport 1545 --rpcvhosts "*" \
        --rpcapi "db,eth,net,web3,personal,debug" \
        --gcmode "archive" \
        --ws --wsaddr --wsport 1546 --wsorigins "*" --unlock "[ADDRESS_MASTERNODE_1]" \
        --identity "NODE1" \
        --mine --gasprice 2500 \
        --bootnodes [YOUR_BOOTNODE_INFORMATION] \
  • Start masternode 2
tao  --syncmode "full" \
            --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/2 --networkid [YOUR_NETWORK_ID] --port 20303 \
            --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/2 --password [YOUR_PASSWORD_FILE_TO_UNLOCK_YOUR_ACCOUNT] \
            --rpc --rpccorsdomain "*" --rpcaddr --rpcport 2545 --rpcvhosts "*" \
            --rpcapi "db,eth,net,web3,personal,debug" \
            --gcmode "archive" \
            --ws --wsaddr --wsport 2546 --wsorigins "*" --unlock "[ADDRESS_MASTERNODE_2]" \
            --identity "NODE2" \
            --mine --gasprice 2500 \
            --bootnodes [YOUR_BOOTNODE_INFORMATION] \         
  • Start masternode 3
tao  --syncmode "full" \
            --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/3 --networkid [YOUR_NETWORK_ID] --port 20202 \
            --keystore $HOME/taoblockchain/keystore/3 --password [YOUR_PASSWORD_FILE_TO_UNLOCK_YOUR_ACCOUNT] \
            --rpc --rpccorsdomain "*" --rpcaddr --rpcport 3545 --rpcvhosts "*" \
            --rpcapi "db,eth,net,web3,personal,debug" \
            --gcmode "archive" \
            --ws --wsaddr --wsport 3546 --wsorigins "*" --unlock "[ADDRESS_MASTERNODE_3]" \
            --identity "NODE3" \
            --mine --gasprice 2500 \
            --bootnodes [YOUR_BOOTNODE_INFORMATION] \
  • Some explanations on the flags
--verbosity: log level from 1 to 5. Here we're using 4 for debug messages
--datadir: path to your data directory created above.
--keystore: path to your account's keystore created above.
--identity: your full-node's name.
--password: your account's password.
--networkid: our testnet network ID.
--port: your full-node's listening port (default to 20202)
--rpc, --rpccorsdomain, --rpcaddr, --rpcport, --rpcvhosts: your full-node will accept RPC requests at 8545 TCP.
--ws, --wsaddr, --wsport, --wsorigins: your full-node will accept Websocket requests at 8546 TCP.
--mine: your full-node wants to register to be a candidate for masternode selection.
--gasprice: Minimal gas price to accept for mining a transaction.
--targetgaslimit: Target gas limit sets the artificial target gas floor for the blocks to mine (default: 4712388)
--bootnode: bootnode information to help to discover other nodes in the network
--gcmode: blockchain garbage collection mode ("full", "archive")
--synmode: blockchain sync mode ("fast", "full", or "light". More detail:

To see all flags usage

tao --help

Check your private chain

  • Connect ipc
tao attach $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1/tao.ipc
  • Connect rpc
tao attach tao attach http://localhost:1545
  • Verify Checkpoints
    Wait about 30 minutes to see if your chain passes the first checkpoint

    Console log at checkpoint

tao attach


  • Reset your chain
rm -rf $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1/tao $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/2/tao  $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/3/tao
tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/1 init genesis.json
tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/2 init genesis.json
tao --datadir $HOME/taoblockchain/nodes/3 init genesis.json

Note: we use the Gnosis Multisig Wallet: